Ramadan Around the World: Customs and Rituals from Various Countries

Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, is a sacred time for Muslims around the world. It’s a period marked by fasting, prayer, reflection, and community. Observed by over a billion people globally, Ramadan transcends borders and cultures, bringing together diverse customs and rituals that highlight the unity and diversity within the Muslim world.

History of Ramadan

The roots of Ramadan trace back to 610 CE when the Quran was first revealed to Prophet Muhammad. This month-long observance commemorates the event and has been a cornerstone of Islamic faith and practice ever since. Over the centuries, the way Ramadan is celebrated has evolved, influenced by cultural, geographic, and historical factors.

General Practices During Ramadan

During Ramadan, Muslims engage in several key practices:

  • Fasting (Sawm): From dawn to sunset, Muslims abstain from food, drink, and other physical needs to cultivate self-discipline and spiritual growth.
  • Prayers (Salat): Increased emphasis is placed on regular prayers, with special night prayers called Taraweeh conducted in mosques.
  • Charity (Zakat and Sadaqah): Muslims are encouraged to give to those in need, reflecting the spirit of generosity and compassion.
  • Night Prayers (Taraweeh): These are additional prayers performed by Sunni Muslims after the Isha (night) prayer.

Ramadan in the Middle East

  • Saudi Arabia: In the birthplace of Islam, Ramadan is marked by communal prayers in the Grand Mosque in Mecca, elaborate iftar (breaking of the fast) meals, and late-night gatherings.
  • United Arab Emirates: Known for its grand iftar buffets and festive decorations, the UAE also emphasizes charity, with numerous initiatives to help those in need.
  • Egypt: Ramadan in Egypt is famous for its vibrant streets, illuminated lanterns (fawanees), and bustling markets. The tradition of breaking the fast with a drink of sweet apricot juice is a cherished custom.

Ramadan in South Asia

  • Pakistan: In Pakistan, Ramadan is a time of spiritual reflection and community. The sound of the call to prayer echoes through the streets, and special dishes like samosas and pakoras are enjoyed at iftar.
  • India: With its diverse Muslim population, India’s Ramadan practices vary widely. From the bustling markets of Old Delhi to the quiet iftars in Hyderabad, the month is filled with a mix of traditional foods and prayers.
  • Bangladesh: The streets of Dhaka come alive during Ramadan with the aroma of delicious street food like jilapi (jalebi) and piyaju. Community iftars are common, bringing people together to break their fast.

Ramadan in Southeast Asia

  • Malaysia: Ramadan bazaars are a highlight, offering a variety of traditional Malaysian dishes. Families come together to prepare for iftar and perform the Taraweeh prayers in beautifully decorated mosques.
  • Indonesia: Known for its communal iftars, or buka puasa bersama, Indonesians gather in mosques and public spaces to break their fast. Special dishes like kolak (banana and coconut milk dessert) are popular.
  • Philippines: Among the Moro people, Ramadan is observed with a mix of Islamic and indigenous traditions. The breaking of the fast often includes traditional sweets and a community meal.

Ramadan in Africa

  • Egypt: Besides its general practices, Egypt is known for its spiritual ambiance during Ramadan. The streets are adorned with colorful lights, and mosques are filled with worshippers.
  • Nigeria: Ramadan in Nigeria is a blend of Islamic and local traditions. Community iftars are common, and special dishes like suya (spicy skewered meat) are enjoyed.
  • Morocco: Nights in Morocco during Ramadan are vibrant, with families gathering for iftar, followed by social activities and Taraweeh prayers. Harira soup is a staple during this month.

Ramadan in Europe

  • Turkey: With its rich Islamic heritage, Turkey’s Ramadan includes communal prayers, historical traditions, and special foods like güllaç (a dessert made with milk, pomegranate, and pastry).
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ramadan in Bosnia is marked by a strong sense of community, with special prayers and iftar meals that include traditional dishes like somun bread.
  • United Kingdom: The UK’s multicultural society embraces Ramadan with diverse iftar events, bringing together Muslims from different backgrounds to celebrate and share meals.

Ramadan in North America

  • United States: Muslims in the US observe Ramadan with community iftars, mosque events, and charitable activities. Interfaith iftars are also common, promoting understanding and unity.
  • Canada: Inclusive and diverse, Canada’s Muslim community celebrates Ramadan with a focus on community service, interfaith dialogues, and large iftar gatherings.

Ramadan in Latin America

  • Brazil: As the Muslim community grows in Brazil, Ramadan practices are becoming more visible, with mosques hosting iftars and community prayers.
  • Argentina: In Argentina, Ramadan is observed with a blend of Islamic traditions and local customs, with mosques playing a central role in the community.

Ramadan in Central Asia

  • Uzbekistan: Rich in cultural heritage, Uzbekistan celebrates Ramadan with community prayers, special foods, and a focus on charity and helping the less fortunate.
  • Kazakhstan: The Muslim community in Kazakhstan observes Ramadan with communal prayers, iftar gatherings, and traditional Kazakh hospitality.

Unique Ramadan Foods from Around the World

  • Middle Eastern Delicacies: Dates, samosas, and lamb dishes are staples.
  • South Asian Savory and Sweet Dishes: Samosas, biryani, and sweet treats like kheer.
  • African Traditional Foods: Harira soup, suya, and various local delicacies.

Ramadan’s Impact on Society

Ramadan fosters a sense of community and encourages charitable actions. It provides spiritual benefits, helping Muslims develop patience, self-control, and empathy. Physically, fasting has been shown to have health benefits, including improved metabolism and detoxification.

Challenges of Observing Ramadan in Non-Muslim Countries

Balancing work and fasting can be challenging, especially in non-Muslim-majority countries. Finding community support and places to break the fast can also be difficult, but many Muslims find strength in their faith and seek out local mosques and community centers.


Ramadan is a powerful reminder of the unity and diversity within the Muslim world. From the Middle East to North America, each community adds its unique touch to the observance, creating a rich tapestry of traditions and customs. Embracing these differences and learning from them can foster greater understanding and respect among people of all backgrounds.

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